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What's Really in McDonald's Chicken McNuggets?

What's Really in McDonald's Chicken McNuggets?


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It's — wait for it — chicken!

Wikimedia Commons

Chicken McNuggets are produced by Tyson.

McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets are one of the most popular fast foods in existence, with a following ranging from children to senior citizens. We know how most chicken nuggets are made, and what the healthiest and unhealthiest fast food chicken nuggets are, but what exactly goes into Chicken McNuggets?

As evidenced by this video that McDonald’s posted on YouTube, there’s not much to fear. They’re made at the Tyson factory, and are made with chicken breast, rib meat, chicken tenders, and some skin “for flavoring.” After the meat is deboned, it’s coarsely ground, then combined with water, sodium phosphates, modified food starch, salt, natural flavoring, wheat starch, dextrose, citric acid, autolyzed yeast extract, rosemary extract, and safflower oil in a large mixer. Then they’re formed, battered, breaded, and dropped into hot oil. They’re only partially cooked at the plant, flash-frozen, then finished at the restaurant.

So there you have it! It’s definitely processed, but it’s certainly not pink slime.


McDonalds Is Changing Its Chicken McNugget Recipe

It's been about a year since McDonald's swore off the use of chicken raised with antibiotics, and less time since they vowed to make simplicity the name of their fast food game, but now the chain is taking a few more steps towards making our favorite menu item -- nuggets, duh -- something that we can be proud to call our guilty pleasure.

In an effort to swap out the 40-ingredient McNugget recipe for something a little "healthier" (healthy is a stretch, but go with it for a second), McDonald's is testing a "cleaner" version of the happy meal staple. This includes using frying oil that doesn't contain the the (almost, if not totally, impossible to pronounce) preservative tert-Butylhydroquinone, and cutting ingredients like sodium phosphates from the McNugget secret formula. (We should note that McDonald's has been pretty adamant about the importance of sodium phosphates in keeping their nuggets moist, so we're not entirely sure what kind of trade-off we're talking about here.)

Save these random tidbits of information, though, the whole McNugget transformation has been pretty hush hush, and there hasn't really been an official announcement from McDonald's about when the upgraded nuggets will can be expected nationwide.

Becca Hary, a spokeswoman for the chain, stressed to Crain's Chicago Business that the recipe tweaks are still very much in their testing phase, and the chain is still not at the point where it's ready to confirm a launch date. Hary did, however, confirm that responses have been positive in the 140-restaurant test market where the recipe has been tried out. "More than ever," she said, "customers care about where their food comes from and how it is prepared."

While we eagerly wait for the new and improved chicken nuggets to be rolled out across the country, at least we have the brand new McDonald's chicken breakfast sandwich to keep us company. It's not a McNugget, but it might be able to hold us over.


What’s Really Inside McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets?

McDonald’s started out as a beefy burger joint back in 1948, but the world-famous fast-food chain has been offering another high-protein meat – chicken – since the specially molded McNugget made its debut in 1983.

Perhaps now as iconic as the Big Mac or Quarter Pounder, these tiny deep-fried chunks seem harmless on the surface. And over the years, McDonald’s has added dipping sauces that make these bite-sized bits appealing to the taste of just about anyone – adults and kids alike.

White meat from poultry has less saturated fat than red meat. While that might appear to be a healthy advantage, the other ingredients McDonald’s adds make its nutritional value questionable. If you’re not too squeamish or too chicken to hear all the details, read on to get some nuggets of truth about these little golden treats.

So while McNuggets are “made with 100-percent USDA Grade-A chicken,” as McDonalds.com states, there’s no way of knowing what percentage of the whole nugget is actually chicken.

Christopher Ochner, Ph.D.

THE SUSPECT: McDonald’s McNuggets (6-piece serving size, 3.4 oz)

Which is your favorite dipping sauce? Be sure to check the ingredients! Photo Credit fkruger/AdobeStock

THE DETECTIVE: Christopher Ochner, Ph.D.,a research associate at New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center at St. Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital Center. Ochner is very familiar with McDonald’s menu. A few years ago, he conducted his own “Super Size Me”-type diet experiment: Every day for two months he ate one meal at the fast food restaurant as part of a study.

NUTRITION LABEL:

Without sauce: 280 calories, 18 grams fat, 18 grams carbs, 13 grams protein, 0 grams sugar, 540 milligrams sodium, 1 gram dietary fiber.

With barbeque sauce: 330 calories, 18 grams fat, 29 grams carbs, 13 grams protein, 10 grams sugar, 800 milligrams sodium, 1 gram dietary fiber.

LISTED INGREDIENTS:

Chicken McNuggets: White Boneless Chicken, Water, Food Starch-Modified, Salt, Seasoning (Autolyzed Yeast Extract, Salt, Wheat Starch, Natural Flavoring [Botanical Source], Safflower Oil, Dextrose, Citric Acid), Sodium Phosphates, Natural Flavor (Botanical Source). Battered and Breaded with: Water, Enriched Flour (Bleached Wheat Flour, Niacin, Reduced Iron, Thiamin Mononitrate, Riboflavin, Folic Acid), Yellow Corn Flour, Bleached Wheat Flour, Food Starch-Modified, Salt, Leavening (Baking Soda, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate, Sodium Aluminum Phosphate, Monocalcium Phosphate, Calcium Lactate), Spices, Wheat Starch, Dextrose, Corn Starch. Contains: Wheat.

*Prepared in vegetable oil (Canola Oil, Corn Oil, Soybean Oil, Hydrogenated Soybean Oil with TBHQ and Citric Acid added to preserve freshness). Dimethylpolysiloxane added as an antifoaming agent. Prepared in vegetable oil (Canola oil, corn oil, soybean oil, hydrogenated soybean oil with TBHQ and citric acid added to preserve freshness). Dimethylpolysiloxane added as an antifoaming agent.

Tangy Barbeque Sauce: High-fructose corn syrup, water, tomato paste, grape vinegar, distilled vinegar, salt, soy sauce (water, wheat, soybeans, salt), food starch-modified, spices, dextrose, soybean oil, natural smoke flavor (plant source), xanthan gum, caramel color, garlic powder, cellulose gum, dried chili peppers, malic acid, natural flavor (fruit and vegetable source), onion powder, sodium benzoate (preservative), succinic acid. Allergens: Wheat and Soy.

How Much Actual Chicken Is in McDonald’s McNuggets?

With over 30 ingredients listed, it’s easy to see how chicken may actually play a minor role in McDonald’s McNuggets. Photo Credit buhanovskiy/AdobeStock

It’s always good to see the actual food listed as the first ingredient —white boneless chicken.

“The first item on the nutrition label means the food contains more of that one item than any other single ingredient,” said Ochner. So while McNuggets are “made with 100 percent USDA Grade A chicken,” as McDonalds.com states (note it says “made with” not “made of,” Ochner pointed out), there’s no way of knowing what percentage of the whole nugget is actually chicken.

“White boneless chicken is almost a pure protein, boasting a phenomenal 0.2 protein (grams): kcal ratio with less than 20 percent fat,” explained Ochner. “McNuggets, on the other hand, have a very mediocre 0.046 protein:kcal ratio with 57 percent of kcal from fat. This seems to suggest that the other ingredients, besides chicken, are the primary driver of the macro-nutrient profile,” he said.

With over 30 ingredients listed, it’s easy to see how chicken may actually play a minor role in this dish. It may also explain why the chicken seemed to disappear in an alarming YouTube time-lapse video shot in March 2013, showing McNuggets left at room temperature over a two-day period.

When Ochner performed this experiment himself (he left them in the fridge for 10 days), the so-called chicken in the McNuggets pieces remained intact. This disturbing mystery remains unsolved.

Did You Know That McNuggets Are 57 Percent Fat?

Holy cow, er, chicken: McNuggets are 57 percent fat!

One big fat contributor may be hydrogenated soybean oil, which is loaded with trans fats. “I don’t suspect there is a ton of it in there because the saturated fat is relatively low,” Ocher said. “However, some of it is almost certainly still partially hydrogenated, which also helps with preservation.”

What the Heck Is TBHQ (Tertiary Butylhydroquinone) and Why Is It In McNuggets?

McNuggets look so innocent, sitting on this slate gray table. Did you know they contain TBHQ, linked to nausea, ADHD and DNA damage? Photo Credit rez-art/iStock/Getty Images

This powerful petroleum-based preservative (which is also found in varnishes, lacquers, pesticide products, cosmetics, and perfumes) may be used to help the chicken and other ingredients maintain their distinct shapes.

Eaten in high doses – and it’s hard to determine exactly how much is added to McNuggets – this chemical can be toxic.

Possible side effects include nausea, delirium, collapse, tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and vomiting. Some studies have linked it to hyperactivity in kids, asthma, rhinitis, dermatitis, aggravated ADHD symptoms and restlessness.

Furthermore, animal studies have reported that it may cause DNA damage. This mounting scientific evidence was enough that McDonald’s entirely removed this bad-news ingredient from the version of their McNuggets sold in the United Kingdom.

Oh America, can we please take a cue from the British on this one with regard to concern for our citizens’ health?

The British Won’t Stand for Dimethylpolysiloxane, But Americans Eat It in Their McNuggets

Here’s another ingredient the British won’t stand for in their McNuggets: Dimethylpolysiloxane. But Americans are still eating it.

This silicone-based anti-foaming agent has been removed from the United Kingdom’s McNugget ingredient list – and with good reason.

While McDonalds.com admits that “a drop of an additive in vegetable oil is added to simply prevent foaming on the surface that naturally occurs in cooking,” what it isn’t telling you is that this same chemical is found in silly putty, contact lenses, medical devices, shampoos, lubricating oils, heat-resistant tiles and breast implants.

“No studies have suggested any toxic effects,” Ochner said, “but it’s definitely gross to think about.”

Autolyzed Yeast Extract, a.k.a. MSG in Your McNuggets

Even this kid is skeptical of McNuggets. He doesn’t want to eat Dimethylpolysiloxane. Photo Credit KidStock/Blend Images/Getty Images

This sneaky ingredient — Autolyzed Yeast Extract in the McNuggets’ seasoning — contains monosodium glutamate (also known as MSG) which allows McDonald’s to create the illusion that you’re getting more protein with each bite than you actually are.

This cheap, flavor-enhancing filler is FDA-approved (even though approximately 15 percent of Americans have MSG sensitivity and suffer from headaches, nausea, and heart palpitations when they consume it).

That said, even if you’re not one of the people affected with MSG sensitivity, including MSG in the McNuggets recipe is still a devious way of cheating you the consumer out of real chicken (seriously, how much poultry is in those things?!), cutting corners on costs and avoiding listing the word “MSG” on the label.

Those McNuggets Contain Sodium Aluminum Phosphate Too

Key word here is “aluminum.” You know, the silvery metallic element you use to line your oven rack before baking or roasting?

Ochner explained that this ingredient is synthetically produced from aluminum as well as phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide.

While this all sounds highly unappetizing, its function isn’t to entice you but rather to act as a leavening agent that’s often used in flour mixes, like the breaded part of the McNugget.

In terms of its safety, the FDA allows a daily aluminum intake that ranges from 10 to 100 mg, so as long as McDonald’s stays within that range, it’s within the legally acceptable limit.

The Final Verdict on McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets

THE SENTENCE: Though they’re supposedly made of good-for-you lean white meat chicken, McDonald’s McNuggets are far from healthy and nutritious. So, if your options are all about deciding whether to nosh on a McNugget or not, your best bet is to fly the coop.


Conclusion

So, which is your favorite McDonald’s sauce dips? Try out the ones we have mentioned and let us know which works best for you! We’ve even left out some delicious dips such as their tartar sauce. On our website you will find many McDonald’s sauces recipes that you can recreate in your own home.

Related

Laura Ritterman

Hi, I’m Laura and having studied an MSc in Nutrition, becoming a professional chef and appearing on major publications with my recipes I decided to create a website of my own. This website is where I share unique recipes, tips and cooking inspiration that will allow your culinary skills flourish. You can contact me here. For more information, you can find more about me.

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Hi, I’m Laura and I love fashion, cooking, my kids, but lets not forget the flavors in life. I’m a food enthusiast living in the United States, a wife and a mom to my two beautiful kids.


  • Autolyzed yeast extract (which contain free glutamate, similar to MSG),
  • Sodium phosphates and
  • Sodium aluminum phosphate.

But that's not the freaky part. According to McDonald's own website, Chicken McNuggets are also made with:

  • "hydrogenated soybean oil with TBHQ and
  • citric acid added to preserve freshness" and
  • "Dimethylpolysiloxane added as an antifoaming agent."

At least two of these ingredients are artificially synthesized industrial chemicals. TBHQ, a petroleum derivative, is used as a stabilizer in perfumes, resins, varnishes and oil field chemicals. Laboratory studies have linked it to stomach tumors. "At higher doses, it has negative health effects on lab animals, such as producing precursors to stomach tumors and damage to DNA. A number of studies have shown that prolonged exposure to high doses of TBHQ may be carcinogenic, especially for stomach tumors."

Dimethylpolysiloxane, a type of silicone, is used in caulks and sealants, as a filler for breast implants, and as key ingredient in Silly Putty. Says Wikipedia:

"PDMS is also used as a component in silicone grease and other silicone based lubricants, as well as in defoaming agents, mold release agents, damping fluids, heat transfer fluids, polishes, cosmetics, hair conditioners and other applications. PDMS has also been used as a filler fluid in breast implants, although this practice has decreased somewhat, due to safety concerns. PDMS is used variously in the cosmetic and consumer product industry as well. For example, PDMS can be used in the treatment of head lice. "

Not that the other ingredients are any better. Because cotton is not regulated as a food crop, cottonseed oil may contain chemical pesticides that are banned in food production. It is also almost always genetically modified. Hydrogenated oils, of course, typically contain trans fats, the artificially produced fats that are unusable by the body and that studies have linked to a number of detrimental health problems. And autolyzed yeast extract is a chemical taste-enhancing ingredient containing free glutamate that manufacturers use as a friendlier-looking replacement for MSG.

And what about the chicken in Chicken McNuggets? It's factory-farmed chicken, not free-range chicken. So it's the kind of chicken that's typically treated with vaccines and hormones while being fed conventional feed products that are medicated with pharmaceuticals and grown with pesticides.

Yum!! Don't forget to ask for extra dipping sauce. We haven't even talked about what you'll find in there.

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THE SUSPECT: McDonald's McNuggets (6-piece serving size, 3.4 oz)

THE DETECTIVE: Christopher Ochner, Ph.D.,a research associate at New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center at St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center. Ochner is very familiar with McDonald's menu. A few years ago, he conducted his own "Super Size Me"-type diet experiment: Every day for two months he ate one meal at the fast food restaurant as part of a study.

NUTRITION LABEL: Without sauce: 280 calories, 18 grams fat, 18 grams carbs, 13 grams protein, 0 grams sugar, 540 milligrams sodium, 1 gram dietary fiber.

With barbeque sauce: 330 calories, 18 grams fat, 29 grams carbs, 13 grams protein, 10 grams sugar, 800 milligrams sodium, 1 gram dietary fiber.

LISTED INGREDIENTS: Chicken McNuggets: White Boneless Chicken, Water, Food Starch-Modified, Salt, Seasoning (Autolyzed Yeast Extract, Salt, Wheat Starch, Natural Flavoring [Botanical Source], Safflower Oil, Dextrose, Citric Acid), Sodium Phosphates, Natural Flavor (Botanical Source). Battered and Breaded with: Water, Enriched Flour (Bleached Wheat Flour, Niacin, Reduced Iron, Thiamin Mononitrate, Riboflavin, Folic Acid), Yellow Corn Flour, Bleached Wheat Flour, Food Starch-Modified, Salt, Leavening (Baking Soda, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate, Sodium Aluminum Phosphate, Monocalcium Phosphate, Calcium Lactate), Spices, Wheat Starch, Dextrose, Corn Starch. Contains: Wheat.

*Prepared in vegetable oil (Canola Oil, Corn Oil, Soybean Oil, Hydrogenated Soybean Oil with TBHQ and Citric Acid added to preserve freshness). Dimethylpolysiloxane added as an antifoaming agent. Prepared in vegetable oil (Canola oil, corn oil, soybean oil, hydrogenated soybean oil with TBHQ and citric acid added to preserve freshness). Dimethylpolysiloxane added as an antifoaming agent.

Tangy Barbeque Sauce: High-fructose corn syrup, water, tomato paste, grape vinegar, distilled vinegar, salt, soy sauce (water, wheat, soybeans, salt), food starch-modified, spices, dextrose, soybean oil, natural smoke flavor (plant source), xanthan gum, caramel color, garlic powder, cellulose gum, dried chili peppers, malic acid, natural flavor (fruit and vegetable source), onion powder, sodium benzoate (preservative), succinic acid. Allergens: Wheat and Soy.


Autolyzed Yeast Extract, a.k.a. MSG in Your McNuggets

This sneaky ingredient -- Autolyzed Yeast Extract in the McNuggets' seasoning -- contains monosodium glutamate (also known as MSG) which allows McDonald's to create the illusion that you're getting more protein with each bite than you actually are.

This cheap, flavor-enhancing filler is FDA-approved (even though approximately 15 percent of Americans have MSG sensitivity and suffer from headaches, nausea, and heart palpitations when they consume it).

That said, even if you’re not one of the people affected with MSG sensitivity, including MSG in the McNuggets recipe is still a devious way of cheating you the consumer out of real chicken (seriously, how much poultry is in those things?!), cutting corners on costs and avoiding listing the word “MSG” on the label.


Where To Buy McDonald’s Frozen Chicken Nuggets + A Barbecue Sauce Hack

Our quick and easy barbecue sauce hack only needs two ingredients!

Our favorite fast food establishments have made staying at home a little more enjoyable, more bearable by offering frozen ready-to-cook packs of our favorite comfort food. Just in case you missed the big news, McDonald's is the latest establishment that now offers cook-it-yourself packs of their famous chicken and chicken nuggets.

How to cook cook-it-yourself Chicken McDo:

McDonald's Chicken Cuts (P219/a pack of 10 pieces) and Spicy Marinated Chicken Cuts (P219/a pack of 10 pieces) are brined which makes the meat extra juicy, but these packs of cook-it-yourself chicken does not come with the breading. The breading is a crucial step to achieve a crunchy chicken skin and an easy way you can do it is by dipping the chicken in an egg wash and coating it in seasoned flour (flour, salt, and pepper) before frying until golden brown.

How to cook cook-it-yourself McNuggets:

McDonald's move of offering frozen Chicken Nuggets (P454/a pack of 50 pieces) is definitely a big deal, especially for those whose go-to McDonald's order is a box of these boneless chicken pops with a side of rice or fries. You can fry the chicken nuggets as is until it gets a darker golden brown color. It's just as good as the one you can order!

Barbecue sauce hack:

Unfortunately, the barbecue sauce is not included in the pack. But you don't need to worry since there is an easy way you can make your own barbecue sauce using ingredients that are likely to be in your kitchen. All you'll need is to heat a 4:1 ratio of ketchup or tomato sauce and brown sugar in a pan. Let it cool and serve with the chicken nuggets.

If you have the extra budget, you can make our all-around barbecue sauce recipe, too!

Where To Buy:

You can look for the nearest McDonald's branch that offers cook-it-yourself products using this McDonald's directory. Available until supplies last.


Strawberry Shake

Courtesy of McDonald's

"For those consuming a 2000-calorie diet, this [shake] accounts for a quarter of your energy for the day, potentially making it harder for you to meet your needs for essential nutrients," says Dr. Jinan Banna, PhD, RD, and professor of nutrition.

"Consumers might think that there is some health benefit from this shake, as 'strawberry' makes it seem as though perhaps it would contain quite a bit of fruit," says Dr. Banna. "The vanilla ice cream included also contains a lot of sugar, as it is the second ingredient listed. All in all, while you will get some calcium and potassium out of this shake, it will probably put you over your limit for calories, sugar, and saturated fat for the day in the context of the typical American diet."

If you can't get enough of McDonald's but don't want to sacrifice your diet for a burger, check out 7 Healthiest McDonald's Orders, According to a Dietitian to learn which items can make or break your eating plan when you crave some deep-fried goodness.


What's Really Inside A Chicken Nugget?

Nobody walks into (or drives through) a fast food restaurant expecting to order a health food. But you might, at the very least, expect that what you order is, well, what you order. Chicken is chicken and beef is beef, right? Think again: What many fast food meals feature is real-life mystery meat.

Take, for instance, the chicken nugget. A paper published online last month by The American Journal of Medicine looked at two nuggets from two different, unidentified national fast food chains: Each was comprised of just 50 percent or less muscle tissue, which is what we typically define as chicken, Reuters reported. The rest of the pair of nuggets was made up of a hodgepodge of pure fat, blood vessels, pieces of bone, nerves and cartilage.

"What has happened is that some companies have chosen to use an artificial mixture of chicken parts rather than low-fat chicken white meat, batter it up and fry it and still call it chicken," lead author Dr. Richard D. deShazo, of the University of Mississippi Medical Center, told Reuters Health. "It is really a chicken by-product high in calories, salt, sugar and fat that is a very unhealthy choice."

Beyond the obvious gross-out factor, these chicken bits probably aren't particularly harmful, explains David Katz, M.D., founding director of Yale University's Prevention Research Center and author of the new book Disease Proof. But they're definitely not doing the body any good, and typically have a poorer overall nutrition profile compared to plain white-meat chicken.

"It stands to reason that the enormous, high volume mass production of model-shaped chicken bits -- that are then concealed inside breading -- would not be made from the best parts of chicken because the best parts of chicken are more expensive," he tells HuffPost. "All of this is, of course, substantially less nutritious than what we typically think of as chicken."

But while a concoction of blood vessels, nerves and chipped bones might be stomach-turning for many consumers, everything else that's packed into a chicken nugget could be even more concerning.

"Things like blood vessels are usually not the problem," Richard Prayson, M.D., section head of Cleveland Clinic's Department of Anatomic Pathology, tells The Huffington Post. "Chemical additives and preservatives are potentially the issue."

And there are plenty of them. In the four fast food companies we surveyed in the video above (which were not necessarily the same companies examined for deShazo's paper), each nugget packed upwards of 20- to 30-plus ingredients, on top of the obvious one: chicken.

Among the ingredient lists we scoured were dimethylpolysiloxane, an anti-foaming agent also used in Silly Putty and propylene glycol, a chemical found in antifreeze. While Katz explains that both additives (as well as others) are classified as "generally recognized as safe" by the FDA, he says this doesn't mean they're "safe," just that they haven't been proven "unsafe."

"If something is clearly not the way it ought to be, assume potential harm until it's proven to be safe," he says. "I would invoke the precautionary principle and say that something that sounds dubious should be considered harmful. If it's not a native part of the food supply, I wouldn't eat it."

Same goes for the vague, catch-all term "artificial ingredients," which popped up on one of the lists. "'Artificial ingredients' are not really food at all, so they are inevitably a bad idea," Katz says, adding that this doesn't mean "natural ingredients" are healthy, either. "Natural doesn't mean good for us pure lard is natural." (And sometimes "natural ingredients" aren't what most anyone would consider edible.)

One of the brands also included the additive monosodium glutamate, a.k.a. MSG, which has been linked to headaches, flushing and sweating, among other symptoms, in certain people. And they all contained sugar, or the sugar alias dextrose. If that seems confusing, since nuggets are a savory treat, you're not alone, according to Katz. "We call this stealth sugar," he says. "Everybody wrestles with a sweet tooth and thinks about dessert. What they don't realize is that sugar is added to almost everything . You've been bathing your taste buds in sugar all day long and when it's time for dessert you need even more sugar."

And where there's sugar, sodium usually isn't far behind. A 470-calorie order of 10 McDonald's Chicken McNuggets, for instance, clocks in at 900 mg of sodium, well over one third of the daily recommended intake for an adult (that's before the fries).

A chicken nugget isn't, of course, the only dubious meat offender at fast food chains: according to Prayson, who was a co-author on 2008 research published in the Annals of Diagnostic Pathology investigating what's really in fast food hamburgers, hot dogs and burgers often contain less than 20 percent meat.

Camera: Amber Genuske
Editor: Amber Genuske
Reporter: Laura Schocker
Producers: Amber Genuske, Rachael Grannell, Meredith Melnick & Laura Schocker



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